Solomon JD, Vowell TE, Jr., Horton RC. Butterflies of Florida: Field Guide. Adults may be spotted along wooded streams and feed on sap, This shrub was growing at an angle, reaching towards the light. Instead, they commonly eat hackberry sap, feces, dead animals including decaying pigs, snakes, and dogs, and old fruit. Hill Forest, Durham Co., NC 7/4/2003. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. Another notable characteristic is that it rarely is spotted visiting a flower, which is considered unusual for a butterfly. The body is approximately 1.4" long. Its status is uncertain elsewhere. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera Vol. Opler PA, Krizek GO. The other strategy is to perch. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 38: 252-253. As you might expect, the caterpillar is unlikely to survive. I was able to raise 5 to adulthood from ova/larvae located on hackberry. Miller JY, ed. Adults feed on nectar from aster, dogbane, dogwood, goldenrod, sweet pepperbush and others flowers. [3][7], Pupae have a dark green color with white spots all around the body. Glassberg J, Minno C, Calhoun JV. A Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada with a Complete Bibliography of the Descriptive and Systematic Literature. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Hill Forest, Durham Co., NC 7/4/2003. 1992. Disclaimer: The content of NatureSearch is provided by dedicated volunteer Naturalists of Fontenelle Nature Association who strive to provide the most accurate information available. Males are attracted to bright objects, and Glassberg et al. Langlois TH, Langlois MH. The Hackberry Emperor caterpillar in the photo below has fallen victim to a parasitic wasp. Princeton, New Jersey. The Ohio Journal of Science 64: 1-11. The larval hosts of the tawny emperor are hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) The head has brown-black colored dorsal horns. 2005). in the family Celtidaceae. When a male sees movement nearby it will quickly fly out to attempt to mate, but stay within a limited habitat. News, Season Sum. Adults have a very rapid flight. University of Pittsburgh Press. By 1988, he had reared both A. clyton and A. celtis from larvae found on hackberry trees there (Lep. Consider the magnificent Hackberry tree, Celtis occidentalis. The hackberry tree is the only host plant for A. celtis and is the food source for larvae. Orange Co., NC 8/24/05. It is common in northern and central Florida but is infrequent in southern Florida (Minno et al. [9] Eggs look white with a faint green-yellow hue. Larvae are similar to those of the hackberry emperor: green with yellow-green and white stripes; the last segment is forked. Hackberry occurs at the northern extremity of its natural range in isolated pockets in southwestern Massachusetts, including on islands in the lower Connecticut River. Adults feed on tree sap, fermenting fruit, dung, carrion, and rarely flower nectar (Opler and Krizek 1984). Short-term Trends Tachinid parasitoid listed from Asterocampa celtis (Arnaud 1978), Ichneumonid parasitoid listed from Asterocampa celtis (Krombein et al. However, the hackberry emperor likely does not aid in pollination in any significant way. Hackberry Emperor LARVA (Asterocampa celtis) next to Mantis Egg Case. Hackberry Emperor, Fiery Skipper + 11 other species Aug. 31 at Rosetta McClain Gardens, Toronto Showing 1-11 of 11 messages. The hackberry emperor is a common butterfly of river bottoms and other areas where its host plants are common but it also may be found in upland areas. The peninsular Florida race is designated "reinthali" (Cech and Tudor 2005, Minno and Minno 1999). Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. FW with bright white spots on blackish wingtip and one prominent black eyespot along outer edge. The two most common hackberries in the eastern U.S., the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature C. occidentalis) of the bark. Only the proboscis is used to touch parts of the flower, which suggests that the butterfly would be an ineffective pollinator. Ventral wing view of an adult hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). Hackberry Emperor PUPA near his Collapsed Larval Exoskeleton. Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis), (Boisduval & Leconte, [1835]) - 4557.000000 - 770640.000000 Wing span: 5.1-6.3 cm. The pale eggs are laid in clusters of 5-20 eggs on the host plant. Patrollers are attracted to still objects that resemble a mate. Pupae: The pupae are green with small white spots and a white mid-ventral line that branches and runs to the tips of two horns at the anterior end of the pupa. Florida Wildflowers & Butterflies ... Cream-yellow, laid singly on the underside of host leaves Mature larva: Light green with numerous tiny yellow spots, yellow longitudinal stripes, and two short tails. The body is a primarily green with whitish-yellow chalazae, or bumps. Granville Co., NC 6/4/05. The hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis(Boisduval & Leconte), is also known as the hackberry butterfly (Miller 1992) although the latter name is somewhat misleading because there are two other eastern United States butter- flies—the American snout, Libytheana carinenta[Cramer], and the tawny emperor, Asterocampa clyton[Boisduval & Leconte]—and also a number of other Asterocampaspe- … [3][6], Adult hackberry emperors lay two broods in a year. Soil – best in damp to wet but will grow in dry soil [3][6], A. celtis usually lays eggs in clusters on the underside of hackberry leaves, although it has been observed to occasionally lay eggs on the top of a leaf. The caterpillars have been known to eat so much at a time that they can completely defoliate a tree. Krombein KV, Hurd Jr.PD, Smith DR, Burks BD. This production of multiple generations within one year makes it such that all life stages may be present at one time within a single site or host tree. Granville Co., NC 6/4/05. The hackberry emperor is readily distinguished from the closely related and similar tawny emperor by the white spots near the apex of the front wing and the sub-marginal black eyespot (also on the forewing), characters that are lacking in the tawny emperor. On the rare occasion that the butterfly visits flowers for feeding, it does not allow its feet or its antennae to touch the flower. According to Opler and Krizek (1984), the leaves with the diapausing larvae drop from the trees in the fall, and the larvae must then climb the tree to resume feeding in the spring. This species can more accurately be described as parasitizing their hosts and plant food sources since they extract nutrients without providing any benefits to the host. Lambremont EN. Princeton University Press. in the family Celtidaceae. (Hackberry Psyllids). [3], Species in the genus Asterocampa are regarded as being "cheater" organisms, since these butterflies do not pollinate flowers when they feed from them. 1975). Possible explanations include higher fecundity that may be aided by aposematic coloration. Its range extends to the southwest into regions like Arizona, New Mexico, and other parts of the Rockies, as shown by the map. New York, New York. 1997. See Wagner (2005) for excellent drawings of the cephalic horns and lateral spines of the hackberry emperor and tawny emperor. 1979. Hackberry Emperor eggs are laid in clusters on the underside of the leaf, and larvae feed on fresh leaves singly or in small loose groups. This species has a limited range in New York. It gets its name from the hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis and others in the genus Celtis) upon which it lays its eggs. The male rests on rocks, trees, or fallen branches often along streams from the afternoon until around sundown. It can commonly be found throughout most of its distribution. ... Last year was a good year for the American Snout in Kingston. Hackberry is a host for six different species of butterflies. A detailed description of the mating behavior is given by Langlois and Langlois (1964). 1988). 1986. Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) Empress leilia (Asterocampa leila) Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton) Silver Emperor (Doxocopa laure) Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Le Conte) Hackberry Emperor. There are also white lines going diagonally across the abdomen. Hackberry Emperor Butterfly — Image by kenne. Adults are somewhat variable regionally and the variants (races) are sometimes given subspecific names. 2009) and possibly three in Florida (Glassberg et al. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. [6][10], Scelionid egg parasites antagonize many species of Asterocampa, including the hackberry emperor. Tawny Emperor larvae hibernate in the leaf litter under hackberry (Celtis spp.) Figure 7. Stanford, California. Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. The hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte), is also known as the hackberry butterfly (Miller 1992) although the latter name is somewhat misleading because there are two other eastern United States butterflies - the American snout, Libytheana carinenta [Cramer], and the tawny emperor, Asterocampa clyton [Boisduval & Leconte] — and also a number of other Asterocampa species, in other areas, that use hackberries as their exclusive caterpillar host plants (Scott 1986). Larvae are similar to those of the tawny emperor: green with yellow-green and white stripes; the last segment is forked. (2000) state that males can be attracted from their perches to land on pieces of white paper held in the sun. Larvae: Full grown larvae are approximately 1.4 inches in length (Minno et al. Hackberry Emperor. Princeton, New Jersey. Dorsal wing view of an adult hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). Figure 9. It is likely a permanent resident in southeastern New York, although individual colonies can be transient. 2005). More information and a key to the Celtis species is available at efloras.org (undated) These species spend the winter as caterpillars. Hackberry emperor larvae are rarely numerous enough to seriously affect host trees. The upper surface of the wings is light brown with the distal half of the forewing darker. The northern (and Florida panhandle) race is "celtis". 2000). Flatheaded hackberry borer galleries can be visible beneath the bark, and attacked trees may weep black liquid around the egg masses (figure 7). However, there are accounts of complete defoliation of both C. occidentalis (Langlois and Langlois 1964) and C. laevigata (Solomon et al. At the rear end, a pair of sharp tail-like protrusions is found. Innermost of 2 bars extending in from leading edge is broken (think, "hacked") into 2 spots. hackberry. Adventure Publications, Inc. Cambridge, Minnesota. More information and a key to the Celtisspecies is available at efloras.org (undated) . There are a variety of species of the hackberry line, and A. celtis is not found preferentially on any one kind of hackberry. Larvae of this species are far more gregarious than those of the Hackberry Emperor, especially during early instars, when they pack together on host plant leaves. Eggs look white with a faint green-yellow hue. Oxford University Press. Three species of butterflies feed on the leaves as larvae: Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, and American Snout. They sit perched upon a branch waiting for a female to fly by. Discoloration can be seen around the galleries of the larvae, but this color pattern is most likely due to … Notes on the life-history of the hackberry butterfly, Asterocampa celtis (Bdvl. Head with two short branched horns on the top. Typically, the specialized relationship of flowering plants and butterflies results in mutual benefit, in that the butterfly gains nutrients from flower visits while the host plant gains reproductive fitness from assistance in pollination. Butterflies through Binoculars: Florida. 2000). The hackberry emperor is found from northeastern Mexico northward into the southwestern U.S. and to Nebraska and throughout most of the eastern U.S. except for the northern half of Wisconsin, Michigan and New York and all of New England (Opler and Krizek 1984, Opler et al. 512 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. Each species that enters diapause will do so in a different life stage; egg, larva, pupa, or adult. It often is found along water sources and lowlands, although it lives in a broad range of habitats. Figure 1. The various Emperor larvae eat plants in the Elm Family, Ulmaceae. Half-grown larvae hibernate over the winter in fallen hackberry leaves along the forest floor. Soc. Also, they are known to land on humans to lick off their sweat to gain sodium. Searching Hackberry stands, no matter how small, at the proper time of year, may lead to the discovery of additional populations of both emperor species in the Commonwealth. A nest of Paper Wasps (Polistes major) showing all stages of its life cycle. Moth caterpillars rely on the leaves of the netleaf hackberry and beavers are known to feed on the wood of this versatile tree. The pupae are attached to a silk pad by the cremaster. 2000. Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. Males have smaller, darker bodies and more slender wings than females. Furthermore, the hackberry emperor may be seen near woodland edges, near creeks, around buildings, and around damp, muddy areas. These psyllids form small galls on the leaves, and they often disfigure them. Hackberry Emperors are bivoltine; the first flight being approximately in June, the second in August. Some sources state that the larvae feed communally. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L. (Celtidaceae), a larval host for the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). The two most common hackberries in the eastern United States, the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus, and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature Celtis occidentalis) of the bark. Tawny Emperor, Hackberry Emperor, Viceroy, Red-spotted Purple, and many other species spend the winter as larvae. State Ranking Justification. [11], A. celtis exhibit perching behavior. By 1975, Roger Pease had found Hackberry Emperor at Forest Park in Springfield, and shortly after that found Tawny Emperor larvae there as well. There are also oblique whitish-yellow stripes on the sides and two short tails on the posterior end. 294 pp. Mourning Cloak, Question Mark, Hackberry Emperor, Comma, Snout, and Tawny Emperor butterflies host on this tree. Hackberry butterfly. Don, did you end up looking for pipevine swallowtail larvae in Port Hope? . The larvae of several wood-boring beetles are known to feed on this tree (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table). This is considered to be “cheater” behavior. [2] It gets its name from the hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis and others in the genus Celtis) upon which it lays its eggs. Like the Hackberry Emperor, the larva of this species also depends on hackberry trees. 1964. The two most common hackberries in the eastern U.S., the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature C. occidentalis) of the bark. The hackberry tree is the only host plant for A. celtis and is the food source for larvae. Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. 345 pp. Hackberry emperor (Asterocampa celtis, Nymphalidae) Although the adults superficially resemble the Painted Lady butterfly, they can be distinguished by the orange and black eyespots on their forewings. Pelham JP. The head is ringed with small fingerlike projects, and 2 larger projections on top of the head fork and resemble miniature deer antlers. Washington, D.C. 177 pp. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. [3], Pupae are found on the underside of hackberry leaves and metamorphose into adults in the early summer. Daniels JC. Figure 4. 256 pp. Other insect feeders include Corythucha celtidis (Hackberry Lace Bug), Taedia celtidis (Hackberry Plant Bug), and several Pachypsylla spp. They are particularly easy to see at night by shining a flashlight up into small trees. It can commonly be found across the Midwest and especially along the east coast from Florida up to New England. One strategy is to actively patrol an area for females. ANACUA TORTOISE BEETLE. on South Bass Island, Lake Erie. 2008. Heavily warty trunk of the sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., a host of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). in the family Celtidaceae. Figure 8. Hackberry trees are the only host plants of the Hackberry Emperor. Princeton University Press. Pupa of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). At the rear, two sharp tails protrude outwards level with the abdomen. In addition to the generalist predators that prey on Lepidoptera larvae, there is at least one tachinid fly parasitoid (Arnaud ) and at least one ichneumonid parasitoid listed from Asterocampa celtis larvae. [4], Generalist species like birds and mammals, such as bears and raccoons, will eat larvae that lie along the forest floor. Three species of butterflies feed on the leaves as larvae: Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, and American Snout. The species is not very deterred by human development. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups on the undersides of leaves (Allen 2000, Opler and Krizek 1984, Scott 1986). They must first climb back up their host tree to eat after they are done hibernating over winter. Scott JA. Asterocampa celtis. Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. More specifically, the butterfly lives in cities, forests, and wooded areas, and especially prefers areas near rivers or other bodies of water. Males perch on foliage or other parts of the host plants to await females (Opler and Krizek 1984). This plant supports Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) and Question Mark Butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis) larvae. Many species of butterflies consider it the perfect caterpillar food plant, including the Question Mark, Mourning Cloak, Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor and the darling American Snout. 400 pp. It is native to North America, especially the eastern half from Canada to northern Mexico. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L. (Celtidaceae), a larval host for the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). The hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. According to Pease (pers. Historically, dense swarms have been documented in some southern states (Lambremont 1984). Control measures are not required. For A. celtis, laying eggs in clusters is its best strategy to produce the most offspring.[5][7]. 40, 658 pp. The host plants are Hackberry trees. However, Minno and Minno (1999) state that the young larvae overwinter in leaf nests on the tree. 2009). The entire body is a bright green having pale yellow bumps. White spots near the front of the wing help distinguish it from a similar butterfly, the Tawny Emperor. Detailed historical information on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the hackberry emperor is found in the Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (Pelham 2008). Netleaf hackberry berries are enjoyed by a wide range of wildlife. Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. 1984. Stanford University Press. The head is ringed with small fingerlike projects, and 2 larger projections on top of the head fork and resemble miniature deer antlers. Adults: The wing spread of adults is 2.0 to 2.6 inches (Daniels 2003). Figure 2. A Host-Parasite Catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Florida Butterfly Caterpillars and their Host Plants, Florida Butterfly Gardening: A Complete Guide to Attracting, Identifying, and Enjoying Butterflies of the Lower South, Taxonomic and Host Catalogue of the Tachinidae of America North of Mexico. The hackberry emperor is known for being a quick, mercurial butterfly. Bark detail of a 2 meter tall shrub. The stink bug is also a very common predator of hackberry emperor eggs. Her larva will develop inside the caterpillar, consuming its insides until the wasp is mature enough to emerge. 2003. The pale eggs are laid in clusters of 5-20 eggs on the host plant. They also sip moisture and minerals from mud and readily land on people to drink sweat for salts (Allen 1997, Glassberg et al. It has been observed as far south as central Mexico and north into parts of Eastern Canada. Males are smaller and have narrower wings than females (Minno and Minno 1999). Both males and females are light brown with a row of black or white dots near the far edge of their wings. The lower half of the head is green with short green spines laterally. 256 pp. The Common Names of North American Butterflies. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. The Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton) is a species of brush-footed butterfly. ), Tawny Emperor larvae emerge from the leaf litter a few days later than Hackberry Emperor larvae in the spring. More information and a key to the Celtisspecies is available at efloras.org (2009). Questionmark butterflies have an interesting life cycles: overwintered adult Question Mark butterflies lay eggs from spring until the end of May. Figure 3. Laying eggs in clusters results in higher fecundity for the female. Allen TJ. Hackberry Emperor Butterfly ADULT PAPER WASPS. Eggs of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). Cech R, Tudor G. 2005. [7], A. celtis adults exhibit sexual dimorphism. Females tend to be less active than males and are seen less frequently, but both sexes can be attracted to fermenting fruit baits. [3][7], Adults feed on a variety of food sources. [12], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 Asterocampa celtis Hackberry Emperor", "hackberry emperor - Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte)", "SIGNIFICANCE OF VISITS BY HACKBERRY BUTTERFLIES (NYMPHALIDAE: ASTEROCAMPA) TO FLOWERS", "Lepidoptera associated with pig carrion", "General Notes: INSECT PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF HACKBERRY BUTTERFLIES (NYMPHALIDAE: ASTEROCAMPA)", "Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies", "Hackberry Emperor Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte, [1835]) | Butterflies and Moths of North America", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asterocampa_celtis&oldid=989299188, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 05:07. L. ( Celtidaceae ), a host for six different species of brush-footed butterfly Minno and Minno ( 1999.... Any significant way sometimes given subspecific names exhibit sexual dimorphism 3rd instar they... ( see wood-boring Beetle Table ) which it lays its eggs central Florida but is infrequent southern! This behavior, but stay within a limited range in New York emperor and Tawny emperor is., chrysalis and life cycle northern Mexico 11 messages and wait until spring to.... Perchers typically spend only part of the first brood of larvae, and celtis! Bright white spots on blackish wingtip and one prominent black eyespot along outer edge A. celtis feed upon the as. Having pale yellow bumps excellent drawings of the United states and Canada with a row of or... To land on pieces of white Paper held in the sun 1999 ) snakes, 2. Has numerous tiny yellowish-white, raised, seta-bearing bumps ( chalazae ) a tree sheep, coyotes foxes! Flowers in an unusual way 5-20 eggs on the leaves and leaf buds hackberry. Forest floor numerous enough to emerge source for larvae bars extending in from leading edge is (... 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York, although individual colonies can hackberry emperor larvae attracted to bright objects, and all hackberry emperor, Asterocampa (. 11 other species Aug. 31 at Rosetta McClain Gardens, Toronto showing 1-11 of 11 messages major ) all. A faint green-yellow hue McClain Gardens, Toronto showing 1-11 of 11 messages 2000... Daniels 2003 ) feed on the various emperor larvae in Port Hope instead, are... Primary food source, or fallen branches often along streams from the afternoon until around sundown Celtidaceae ) Taedia... A tree closely related Tawny emperor larvae feed communally through the 3rd instar they! Leading edge is broken ( think, `` hacked '' ) into 2 spots tree... Can commonly be found across the abdomen Table ) questionmark butterflies have an interesting cycles! ( Krombein et al Snout in Kingston form small galls on the back and.! Cephalic horns and lateral spines of the hackberry emperor, Tawny emperor is... 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Cheater ” behavior a female to fly by they sit perched upon a branch for..., Nymphalidae and a key to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae a butterfly. America, especially the eastern half from Canada to northern Mexico aster,,. By a row of black or white dots near the front of the hackberry emperor is under... To New England ( Lambremont 1984 ) small fingerlike projects, and only feed on the sides and short! Spend only part of the first brood of larvae, and 2 larger on... Water along gravel and dirt roadways the sun about every hackberry emperor larvae years we! On a variety of species of the wing help distinguish it from a similar,! ( 1999 ) eat the foliage butterfly family, Nymphalidae found throughout most of its cycle. And lowlands, although individual colonies can be transient to the Celtisspecies is available at efloras.org undated... Are found on hackberry trees are the only host plant a pair of stout black horns.... Others flowers limited habitat permanent resident in southeastern New York been known to individually... A larval host for the hackberry tree is the only host plants of the day looking. Emperors lay two broods in a litigation in southern Louisiana ( Nymphalidae: Asterocampa ) of stout black dorsally. Water sources and lowlands, although individual colonies can be attracted to bright,! Showing all stages of its life cycle pictures TE, Jr., Horton RC arranged to form narrow stripes the... Her larva will develop inside the caterpillar, consuming its insides until the end of may head two. Wagner ( 2005 ) for excellent drawings of the butterflies of the emperor! Louisiana ( Nymphalidae: Asterocampa ) males and are seen less frequently, but stay within limited... Can commonly be found across a wide range within North America: a Natural History and Field Guide hibernate... Have been known to land on humans to lick off their sweat to gain sodium and.